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History of Groundwater Development Worldwide


Groundwater exploitation evidence has been found in Central AsiaEgypt and Iransince 500 BC The technology was used to extract groundwater in that period is called qanatTheqanat is an underground tunnel of relatively flat slope which extracts water from a more steeply sloping aquiferGroundwater then flows through the qanat under the force of gravityIn Iran, the 816 miles qanat system is used to supply groundwater for agriculture and domestic uses for around 175,500 people


Groundwater development by drilling boreholes was first occurred in China around 1126The borehole was drilled by anexcavator made of woods and used bamboos as drill rods and drill pipesThis system was installed by human power,and it took 3 generations to drill the borehole at the depth of 1,500 meters Over 700 years later,a steampowered drilling rig was invented in AmericaSince then, various borehole drilling machines have been developed to improve groundwater abstractionsuch as churn drill, auger drill, jet drill, and rotary drill


At the late 17th century, people learnt more about hydrogeology and water cycle through data collections and experiments, leading to the foundation of the fields of geological study and groundwater study in the 18th centuryDarcys law, formulated by Henry Darcy, has become the fundamental principle of groundwater flowAt the 19thcentury, successful groundwater exploitation in France has raised public attention for groundwater development widely